The era of globalization saw the decline in union membership and consequently diminishing union influence in most parts of the world. 2. Trade unions all over the world are under attack by the very forces, drivers and consequences of globalization. 3.
Increasing global economic competition and capital mobility, rise of cross-border production networks combined with outsourcing, neoliberal economic policies, rapid pace in technological innovation, privatization, contraction of the manufacturing sector and expansion of the services sector, changes in production processes, and rowing employer resistance to unionization have reduced the number of “organizable” workers, exacerbated difficulties in union organizing and adversely affected membership commitment to unionism. . Deficiencies and weak and poor enforcement of labor laws also contribute to union membership inertia. 5. Confronted with increasing unemployment, Job losses, casualization and in formalization of labor, subcontracting, outsourcing and downsizing, labor flexibilization, and a regime of union avoidance, unions are robbed of their traditional constituencies – the regular workers. 6.
Undoubtedly, rise in unemployment result in a downward trend in nionization especially if the workers displaced were regular workers. 7. The past two decades saw the growing opposition of employers to unionization. In many countries, union avoidance by employers combined with weak enforcement of labor laws has led to union decline. 8. It has been observed that union avoidance tactics used in the 1980s are being utilized still but with greater intensity in the 1990s.
These tactics are the following: Use of outside consultant Held 5 or more captive-audience meetings Sent 5 or more anti-union letters to employees Discharged workers for union activity and did not reinstate them before the lection Enlisted supervisors to campaign one-on-one Gave wage increases (during organizing campaigns) Made unilateral changes in benefits Laid off workers during the campaign Used bribes Promoted key union leaders Set up an employee involvement program after the petition (for certification election) was filed Held social events with anti-union message Made changes in management structure and personnel Held media campaigns Employer discharged workers for union activity Employer filed election objections Employer used layoffs Management change after petition Assisted the rank-and-file anti-union committee