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phonology

Intro to Linguistics – Phonology
Jarmila Panevov?a & Jirka Hana – October 13, 2010Overview of topics
1. What is Phonology
2. Phonotactics
3. Phonemes
4. Phonological rules
5. Kinds of phonological rules
What to remember/understand:
Phonotactics, phoneme, [ ] vs. / /, minimal pair, phonological rule, assimilation, dissimilation,
insertion, deletion,1What is PhonologyPhonology:
• studies how sounds are organized in particular languages
• tries to discover the psychological patterns and underlying organization of sounds
shared by native speakers of a certain language.
• abstracts from the physical data provided by phonetics.2PhonotacticsPhonotactics studies what kind of sound patterns (sound combinations) are in in a particular
language and which are not.
For example, certain languages allow only do not allow consonant clusters (CV syllables; this
is a universal feature, but some languages are more strict than others). Interesting thing
happens with borrowings from other languages:
Japaneese:
besuboru
gorufurendu– baseball
– girlfriendSetswana (Botswana):
kirisimasi – Christmassutoraiku
arubaitogelase – glass1– strike
– job (German Arbeit)hafu – half Shona (Southern Bantu language, Zimbabwe, replacing [l] with [r]): Strictly CV (C even
cannot be word final)
turoko
furusitopi
sitirecha
hendibhegi
kanduro
chitofu–




–truck
full stop
strecher
handbag
candle
stovepuruvhu
bhirifi
giramu
kirimu
bhirifi–



–proof
brief
gram
cream
breafOther examples:
• Word initial stress – Czech, Hungarian, Finish, English (for most words)
• Word final obstruents (stops, fricatives, affricates) are voiceless – Czech, Polish, Russian, German, Dutch and many other languages.3PhonemesIt is sometimes difficult for native speakers of a language to tell the difference between sounds
which may be completely distinct for speakers of…

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