Evaluate the limitations of resources. Articulate overall appropriateness and usefulness of a resource for a given assessment task. Rationale: Academic literature and business reports are lengthy and knowing what information is important and relevant and where to find it is often difficult.
At university, students often need to read copious amounts of literature to complete assessment tasks but are unable to identify key elements within the text, such as the thesis statements and esearch methodologies, and evaluate them. In the work environment, employers expect employees to know where to find key elements and determine the level of relevance it holds for the company. Once students are able to find and comprehend relevant material they are then able to effectively paraphrase the information.
Required Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7: Evaluating and paraphrasing resources Workshop Readings: Paine et al. (2005); Williams (2008); and Pedigo & Marshall (2009) 1 . Assessment Due: Researching Section 2: Annotated Reference List a. Must be submitted within the first 10 minutes of the workshop b. The Turnitin Originality Report must be attached 2. Workshop Discussion 1: Annotated Bibliographies 2 a. Purpose b. Structure and expression c. Key elements d. Research methodology e. Connectors to unify your text 3. Workshop Activity 1: Annotated Bibliographies a. atne et al. (2005) 8 b. Williams ( 4. Workshop Activity 2: Annotated Bibliography 10 a. Annotate Pedigo and Marshall (2009) b. Mark the Pedigo and Marshall (2009) annotation Workshop Discussion 1: Annotated Bibliographies An annotated bibliography gives a brief account of the available research on a given topic. It is a list of research sources – such as book chapters, Journal articles, and website material – that includes a summary and evaluation of each source. Essentially, it is a list of sources (a bibliography) with notes (annotation).
The purpose Annotated bibliographies have several functions. They can be used to: 1 . Review the literature on a particular topic. The key consideration is the text’s relevance to your area of concern. 2. Demonstrate the quality and depth of your research. 3. Provide an accessible record of your academic readings to draw on at a later stage, ncluding: the bibliographic details of the source you intend to use in your text, a summary of the reading, so that you don’t have to re-read the entire source again, and your evaluation of the reading.
The structure and expression Each entry in an annotated bibliography begins with the bibliographic details of the source (the citation), followed by a brief annotation which is broken up into two additional parts that summarises and evaluates the resource. 1 . The summary section reports the authors’ ideas and research objectively and uses terms such as: Trevor et al, The authors, Their research. 2. The evaluation section details how and why the resource is useful and uses subjective opinion and evaluative language, such as: The article, The main limitation of the article, This article.
Annotations also incorporate reporting verbs. These verbs are used to describe and summarise the information found in the literature. For example: account for clarify describe exemplify indicate question analyse compare depict exhibit investigate recognise argue conclude determine explain judge reflect assess criticise distinguish frame justify refer to assert defend evaluate identify narrate report assume define emphasise llustrate persuade review claim demonstrate examine imply propose suggest Finally, annotations use words and phrases that show logical relationships (logical connectors) between the ideas.
For example: 1. and – signals additional idea 2. such as – signals exemplification 3. as – signals reasons 4. however – signals contrasting idea 5 thus – signals (authors’) conclusion Note: See page 4 for a more complete list of logical connectors. Key elements The citation Must include the full bibliographic details of the source including the author, date, title and publisher. The annotation Needs to be concise – about 200 words. Each annotation addresses the following elements or questions: 1 . Main argument and research address the following questions: a.
What is the author’s thesis or main argument? b. What is the aim of the research and what methodology was used? c. What were the conclusion and any limitations? 2. Usefulness and reflection address the following questions: a. How does it help us address the question? b. How will you use the resource? Research methodology There are a number of different types of research. These include survey research, action research, experimental research, evaluation and performance measurement, thnography, and case studies Just to name a few.
Listed are the most common research methodologies that you will encounter when conducting your research. Case study A methodology which focuses on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting; often used in the exploratory stages of research. Limitation: It incapable of providing a generalizing conclusion Descriptive research A study which aims to describe phenomena as they exist; it identifies and obtains information on the characteristics of a particular problem or issue. Limitation: Cannot draw conclusions that show cause and effect.
Discourse analysis A study that uses secondary research to support its thesis. Secondary research could include someone else’s statistical data, definitions, or analysis. Limitation: Does not provide definite answers but provides an insight/knowledge based on continuous debate and argumentation. Experimental research A methodology that is used to investigate the relationship between two variables. The independent variable is deliberately manipulated in order to observe the effect on the dependent variable.
Limitation: the sample may not be representative of a population – limited to one location, limited in number, studied under constrained onditions and for too short a time. Focus groups A method of collecting data whereby selected participants discuss their reactions and feelings about a product, service, type of situation or concept under the guidance of a group leader. Limitation: Results cannot be generalized. Because focus group participants do not represent a big enough sample size, the information gathered cannot be used to make statements about any larger population.
Interviews A method ot collecting data in which selected participants are asked questions to tind out what they do, think or feel. Limitation: Having the interviewer present may influence the answers given; the samples are too small to be representative and too much detailed information can be difficult to analyse and interpret. Observation A method for collecting data used in the laboratory or in the field to observe and record people’s actions and behaviour. Limitation: Subjects may modify their behaviour when they know they are being watched.
Questionnaires A method for collecting data in which a selected group of participants are asked to complete a written set of structured questions to find out what they do, think or feel. Limitation: Answers tend to be limited in information which can result in low validity due to limited depth in answers; question ambiguity; or response ambiguity. Survey A methodology whereby a sample of subjects is drawn from a population and studied to make inferences about the population. Limitation: Structured surveys may have low validity due to the respondents’ motivation, honesty, memory, and ability to respond.
Connectors to unify your text Time/Sequence Addition Cause & Effect Generalisation initially first of all first(ly)/second(ly)/third(ly) next/then meanwhile while/whilst up to now efore/before that formerly previously prior to after/afterwards thereafter henceforward subsequently ultimately lastly/flnally presently soon simultaneously concurrently again and/and then also besides turtnermore additionally in addition moreover indeed not only but also as well as once again apart from this what is more hence therefore consequently as a consequence accordingly as a result because because of this so/so that for this reason in that case since thus in general in most cases usually frequently mainly on the whole as a rule for the most part speaking generally typically Conclusion
Contrast Comparison Example/Analogy in brief in conclusion/to conclude summing up in summary in short finally however nevertheless yet/and yet on the other hand though/although even though otherwise conversely in spite of while instead in contrast alternatively either or neither nor but on the contrary a different view similarly/similar to by comparison likewise correspondingly equally/equally important in the same manner/way similar to whereas in other words or rather for example for instance such as as follows that is to say in this case to put it another way take the case of to demonstrate o illustrate Stating the obvious Highlighting Conditional Referring obviously clearly of course naturally surely after all evidently/it is evident as one might expect it goes without saying in particular particularly especially if/even if unless whether as long as supposing provided on condition (that) who which when where whose that this there those/these it Example Annotated Bibliography Justify the importance of written communication skills in academia and employment in the twenty-first century.
POOR EXAMPLE: This response would obtain a total mark of 11/50 or 22% Full Harvard IJWS Style Reference WJ Wardrope (2002) Department Chairs’ perceptions ot the impo communications skills’, no. 4, pp. 60-72. rtance ot business Main argument and research (What is the author’s thesis or main argument? What is the aim of the research and the methodology used? What were the conclusions and limitations of the research? ) The article talks says that department chairs in American univesities thinks that writing skills are important. It concludes that more research should be done with other people like students and employers. Note: Objective terms are in italics and logical connectors are in bold.
Usefulness and reflection (How does it help us address the question? How will you use the resource? ) It can answer why written communication is important in academia. Note: Objective terms are in italics and logical connectors are in bold. GOOD EXAMPLE: This response would obtain a total mark of 25. 5/50 or 51% Full Harvard IJWS Style Reference Wardrope, W] 2002 ‘Department Chairs’ perceptions of the importance of business communications skills’ Business Communications Quarterly, vol. 65, no. 4. This article looked at thirty-four types of business communication courses. Using urveys, the authors discovered that written communication skills were most important.
The survey sample was restricted to department chairs in American universities and the authors indicated that more sample groups is needed to get different perspective of what courses are more important. Note: Objective terms are in italics and logical connectors are in bold. Usefulness and reflection (How does it help us address the question?
However, the survey sample only had a sixteen percent response rate so the results may not be transferable to other educational institutions or stakeholders. Thus, other institutions and stakeholders like students and employers should also be surveyed. The authors conclude that there needs to be greater focus on writing skills including grammar, traditional business letters, proposals, reports and memo. Note: Objective terms are in italics and logical connectors are in bold. Usefulness and reflection – (How does it help us address the question? How will you use the resource? ) The article is useful to the research topic, because Wardrope (2002) identified 34 different types of communication skills and found that writing skills were the most important factor in student success.
This article will form the basis of my argument affirming the importance of written communication skills. Note: Subjective terms are in italics and Workshop Activity 1 : Annotated Bibliography Working in small groups, write annotations for the Paine et al. (2005) and Williams (2008) workshop readings to address the workshop question below: Workshop question: Evaluate the need for business ethics in a global economy. The workshop question shown above is NOT the actual assessment question. Please see the ‘Assessments’ link for further details. Annotate Paine et al. (2005) Insert YOUR response in the boxes below: 1. Full reference – Harvard IJWS Style 2. Main argument and research a. What is the author’s thesis or main argument?